How Sex, Politics, Money and Religion are Killing Planet Earth

Monday, December 27, 2010

Environmental Personality Disorders or How Crazy People are Destroying the Planet – Part I

The rampant and ubiquitous destruction of global habitat by Homo sapiens upon which human survival depends cannot be described as anything other than insanity. While many species may from time to time act in ways that are incompatible with their own best interests, the human organism is unique in that he possesses the intellectual capacity to be fully aware of the repercussions of his actions and indulges in self-destructive behaviors anyway.

We sit idly by while industry belches smog into our atmosphere and shit into our oceans. We slather our food crops with poison and then eat them. And we would seemingly rather drive big cars than have a decent, climate-controlled planet to live on. What is wrong with us? The American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) provides clues to the incredulous acts of humankind.

The DSM defines sociopathy (also known as antisocial personality disorder) as “…a pervasive pattern of disregard for, and violation of, the rights of others… (1).” Sociopaths also display compulsive lying, aggressiveness, lack of regard for social norms, irresponsibility and a propensity to con or manipulate others. A sociopath’s life is characterized by a perpetual pursuit of his own gratification without regard or remorse for those he injures in the process.

Many astute philosophers of economics and environmental science have noted that the publicly-traded corporation is by its very nature, sociopathic. The corporation is legally mandated to relentlessly pursue profit and to “externalize” costs and responsibilities wherever possible. Wherever major environmental calamity can be found, corporate sociopathy can usually be traced to the cause. The ruined Gulf of Mexico, countless topless mountains, ruined watersheds and rural communities across Southern Appalachia, dammed, sterilized rivers and the scars of clear cuts where old growth forests once stood are the legacy of corporate sociopaths.

Corporations are not the only sociopaths responsible for the demise of Earth. The National Institute of Mental Health estimates that sociopaths in flesh and blood form comprise about 1% of the population (2), and some sources place the figure as high as 3.6% (3).” Many sociopaths end up in prison. As many as 80% of males and 65% of females in prison suffer from the disorder. Other sociopaths make their way into the workforce and find careers perfectly suited to their personality disorders on Wall Street, for example or as CEOs of corporations. As the global economy tumbled down and record numbers of Americans found themselves homeless and in poverty, the Wall Street sociopaths gleefully counted the bonuses and profits they racked up at everyone else’s expense.

Sadly for Earth and the rest of us, corporate and human sociopaths have insinuated themselves into high places in the world. The sociopaths of Wall Street are the puppeteers of the global economy and our governments are their puppets. With the recent Supreme Court ruling on Citizens United, sociopathic corporations are now deciding who the puppets in Washington will be. While regular, sane people are going about their daily lives not caring about global domination or having it all for themselves, loving their neighbors and working hard to provide for their families, sociopaths, driven by insatiable pathological needs for more and more gratification are ruining the planet.

One of the hallmark characteristics of a successful sociopath is his disarming ability to con and deceive. While robs his victims blind, he simultaneously convinces them his actions are for their own good, and they stupidly believe him.

Haters (Projection)
Haters are also detrimental to society and the environment. Unlike sociopaths, haters feel genuine emotions (rage), but their potent anger is entirely misdirected. The subject engaged in projection will accuse external people or things of the very feelings and motivations he himself harbors. We hate what we fear about ourselves. As noted in the previous posts “Understanding Hate – Parts I and II,” misogynists and homophobes are frequently self-hating men who harbor secret feminine or homosexual identities. Hating the Earth or environmental causes are usually an extension of this kind of misogynist projection.

For normal people without subconscious psychological issues, it seems hard to imagine someone could hate the environment with a passion. What’s to hate? We are in fact part of nature, and objectifying and resenting the natural environment is a singularly self-destructive behavior, but these people do exist.

I once had the distinct privilege of doing some field work on an entirely uninhabited island in the Caribbean that is home to the largest population of a Critically Endangered iguana species. This particular species only survives on a few islands in the world and is severely threatened by developmental pressures, particularly for tourism purposes. The island was also home to a number of other threatened species including some lizards, birds and plants. Part of my job was to try to persuade the “owners” of the island to work with the natural environment, rather than simply bulldozing it, for the mutual benefit of the organisms (who really own the island) and the humans who sought to cohabitate there.

Of course the above ideal treaty between man and beast would require some sacrifice on the part of the humans, as the other organisms always sacrifice anyway. It was at this time I encountered my first real eco-hater. The gentleman, who shall remain nameless, was positively incensed that he should have to curtail any of his profiteering in the interest of an iguana. He retorted (I paraphrase), “It’s our land, those are our iguanas, and if it’s going to be a problem, I will just kill every one of them. Then we won’t have to deal with this bullshit anymore.”

It was only after the gentleman was convinced that there might be some profitability in being able to market a venue that provided habitat for a broad range of threatened species, including the unique iguana, that he reluctantly agreed to any concessions. He hated the iguanas for their weakness, for their need to be cared for and would have gladly participated in the extinction of the species to prove he was a manly man.

The modern, capitalist global culture is based on values that our own medical institutions would recognize as pathological. We have an economic model that is based on the pursuit of selfishness and personal aggrandizement. Our scientific method dismisses feelings, intuition and sentimentality as irrelevant. The prevalent culture glorifies domination and disdains relatedness and inter-dependence. When did we come to accept these pathologies not only as normal but as desirable paradigms?

Passionately driven by psychoses, the sociopaths and haters exert a disproportionate force on the world because normal people are too busy living their lives to either pay attention or are conned by the smooth talk of the skilled sociopaths. Over time and with little resistance, the pathologies have gradually insinuated into our culture and have now become the culture. Just because sociopathy and hating are the institutional norm in the world today doesn’t mean they aren’t still crazy.

It’s crazy to destroy the Earth when our very existence depends upon a healthy environment, and it’s crazy to let institutions and individuals with psychiatric disorders run the world. It’s time to end the craziness.

1- Definition from the World Wide Web at

2- From the National Institute of Mental Health on the World Wide Web at

3- Statistics on the World Wide Web at

Monday, December 20, 2010

Winter Solstice 2010

Tonight is the eve of the shortest day. Tomorrow, as the sun traces its eternal arc across the southern sky in the Northern Hemisphere, it will briefly appear to hesitate upon the apex of its trajectory. ‘Standing sun’ is the literal translation of the word solstice and it happens when the global axis is at its annual furthest point from the sun. After the solstice, the Earth swings back into the sunshine of longer days. The winter solstice marks the rebirth of the sun.
Long before the birth of Christ, before the world was bathed in twenty-four hour a day electric light, the standing sun, signaling the longer days and shorter nights to come was cause for celebration. The joy for the return of the sun did not go unnoticed by any cultures in the ancient world. Across the globe, the rebirth of the sun was celebrated universally by all the people of the Earth.

In Japan, Amaterasu marks the day the sun goddess emerges from her darkened cave to once again bathe the world in light. Ancient and modern Persians celebrate Shab-e Chelleh this evening on the eve of the solstice, commemorating the birth of the sun, Mithra. The Hopi and Zuni American Indian festival of Soyal welcomes the reawakening sun from its winter’s sleep. And the Ancient Druids, Celts, Scandinavians and other Northern Europeans initiated the annual ritual of Yule (Jul, Geul, Joul, and other permutations), commencing thousands of years ago and continuing to this day under the guise of the birth of another son.

The dawn of a new solar year brings new possibilities, a time to let go and a time to look forward, releasing the past to the past. This year, 2010 hosts a particularly potent winter solstice. Just after midnight tonight (Eastern Standard Time), Earth will begin to block the light of the sun on the face of the full moon. By 3:00 am the moon will be fully eclipsed. With the earthly darkening of the moon, the Ursids meteor shower will also be visible in the vicinity of the constellation of Ursa Minor, the Little Bear. This rare simultaneous occurrence of celestial events has not transpired for almost 400 years, making the observance of the winter solstice 2010 a once in many lifetimes event.

400 years ago, at the dawn of the Industrial Revolution, the first merchant explorers were making their way to the New World, ushering in an era of unprecedented human and earthly exploitation. The world we inherit today is a legacy of that time and one that can be vastly improved upon. Let us take this time of rebirth to start again with reverence for our planet and her abundant mysteries.

Historically, the main modes of veneration for this most holy of nights are feasting, building fires and gift giving. As most animals were slaughtered at this time of the year to negate the need to feed them over the long winter ahead, a roasted beast of some persuasion usually formed the centerpiece of the occasion. Today many grass-fed beef farmers also observe this practice.

Along with the feast, a Yule log is ceremonially burned for several days, ideally into the New Year, symbolizing the joining of old and new and death and rebirth. Usually a large knot of oak is selected for this purpose, as the venerable oak is believed to pass on wisdom, insight and strength.

The giving of gifts imparts value in one’s community. In today’s world of rabid individualism, it is often less than apparent that we are all entirely dependant upon one another. We pride ourselves that we are “financially independent,” but who among us is really so? Every good consumed within the course of our daily lives is most often manufactured, grown or prepared by the labor of others, and we are all dependent upon the air, fruit, minerals and waters of Earth for every aspect of our livelihoods. Winter Solstice is a time to remind ourselves of these self-evident truths.

As the northern hemisphere passes from shadow to light, so let it be that our global civilization, long-cloaked in darkness shall be illuminated with the birth of the new sun. May we return to respect for a healthy, bountiful Earth that bestows blessings of peace to all, blessings of prosperity to all and joy, love and laughter for the next 400 years (at least).

Tuesday, December 14, 2010

Defining Freedom, Part II – Learned Helplessness

In 1967, Clinical Psychiatrist, Martin Seligman and various associates conducted a horrific but informative series of studies (1).’ In Seligman’s experiments three groups of dogs were put into cages with electrified floors. The first group of dogs was given a door to escape the torture. The second group of dogs was given a lever to push to end their anguish. The third group of dogs was connected to the second group of dogs so that when a dog in the second group pushed his lever, it ended the suffering of a dog in the third group.
In the next phase of the experiment, dogs from all three groups were all given a door thru which they could escape the electrocution. Dogs from both the first and second groups gladly excused themselves from their electrified cages, but in the third group, the overwhelming majority of dogs just lay down and gave up.

Over the years related studies have been conducted with humans (minus the torture). In one experiment two groups of babies are placed in cribs with mobiles. The babies in the first group are given a pillow with a switch that turns the mobile on and off. The second group has no control switch and can just observe the mobile. After a period of time, the babies in group two are given the pillow with the switch, but the majority of them never use it (2).

While somewhat offensive in terms of animal abuse, the above studies illustrate a psychological phenomenon known as “learned helplessness.” People and animals who have learned they have no control over the circumstances in their lives ultimately resign themselves to their situation and fail to act even when a positive opportunity for change presents itself. While leaned helplessness is pronounced in victims of abuse and persons suffering from clinical depression, one could argue that the wider culture is condemned by the same inability to escape proverbial cages of torture.

From birth, we are programmed to be good little conformists. Little girls are dressed in pink and play with little ponies while boys are cloaked in blue and play with fatigue-donning boy dolls and toy guns. But our sexual identities are just the tip of the systemic conformist iceberg. The external world bombards the developing brain in a continuous drone of commercialism telling us, “Stuff is the answer to all your questions,” “Money equals status and individual worth,” and most importantly, “You can’t beat the system.”

As we mature, “good” boys and girls go to school, then college, and then join the salaried workforce, becoming efficient cogs in the economic machine. Maybe the culture demands church attendance and allegiance to a male god in some distant heavenly place. Maybe “good” girls submit to masculine authority, don’t have sex outside of marriage and certainly don’t enjoy it. Maybe everyone above hates their jobs, hates going to church and feels utterly defeated. But the establishment of the status quo has defined the narrow boundaries in which they conform to such an extent that they become incapable of realizing other definitions of reality exist and are equally, if not more valid. The door to escape looms large, but they are lying on the floor in a heap of desolation.

The US Conference Board conducts annual surveys on job satisfaction and found in January of 2010, a majority of people in the United States go to work every day to jobs they hate (3). The life of the average American worker is characterized by 8, 10, 12 or more hours of labor. The corner fast food drive thru on the way home from work provides the evening’s repast, and the television, the primary source of entertainment. The next day and the day after that, the cycle repeats. If lucky, the worker might get a day or two on the weekend to have some semblance of spending time the way he truly wants to. Why do people subject themselves to a life in which the vast majority of their time is spent unhappily?

I cannot quit my job because I need to pay the bills.
I cannot quit my job until I find another one.
I cannot quit my job because I need the health insurance.
I am helpless.

The corporate system thrives on our learned helplessness. Corporations are entities where shareholders make money by doing absolutely nothing but investing their money. Nowhere in nature is productivity achieved without an input of energy, but shareholders expect this miracle nonetheless, and corporate law explicitly states that the corporation is legally bound to deliver. The only way profits can be delivered to non-working elites is if shareholders can reap the rewards from somebody else’s labor. So Americans go to work every day, convinced they have no other options and wealthy shareholders don’t have to work like the rest of us. Corporate entities require our complicity in their abuse of our labor. If we felt we had any other choices why would we submit to such insanity?

In Seligman’s experiments, a ray of hope exists. Defeated and tortured though they are, in the final analysis almost one third of the dogs in the third group eventually learn to escape their prison of horror, and unhappy American workers have options too. Many heretics of the American Dream are already enjoying lives in the infinite unbarred wilderness on small family farms, as writers and artists and in creative small businesses.

The opportunities outside our collective corporate cages are infinite if only we can muster up the courage to look at a world without bars.

1- Seligman, M.E.P., and Maier, S.F. (1967). Failure to Escape Traumatic Shock, Journal of Experimental Psychology, 74, 1-9.

2- Watson, J., and Ramey, C. (1969). Reactions to Response-Contingent Stimulation in Early Infancy, paper presented at the Society for Research in Child Development, Santa Monica, CA.

3- The Conference Board, US Job Satisfaction at Lowest Levels in Two Decades on the World Wide Web at

Wednesday, December 8, 2010

Understanding Hate, Part II – Misogyny, Planetary Destruction and the Secret Fears of Macho Men

"Consider how different our behavior would be if the default positions within this culture – the positions we are taught to accept, were…that the world is not organized hierarchically but rather in a complex interweaving, and that to hyperexploit one’s landbase is to destroy the tapestry that supports one’s own life; that relationship is more important (and more fun) than the acquisition and wielding of power, and that beings are more important than things…(Derrick Jensen, Endgame Volume II).”
What do limp penises, imperialist governments, predatory capitalists, religious fanatics and wanton environmental destruction have in common? Everything. Politics, money and religion are rendering Planet Earth into a place incompatible with the maintenance of complex life, and it’s all about sex.

The governmental urge to press its will upon people in foreign lands, the capitalist imperative to economically do the same, the religious zealot’s unbending desire to turn women into submissive, baby-making housewives and the ceaseless campaign to render the living Earth into inanimate resources are all manifestations of overblown, out of control masculine dominance. The purveyors of such policies not only exalt in everything manly – the greatest military force on Earth, a Father in heaven and rampant accumulation of wealth, they also revile everything deemed to be feminine. Disdained feminine attributes include perceived weakness, dependency, collectivism and unbridled fertility.

For example, conservatives are staunchly against public “entitlement” programs for the poor. Poor, single mothers are scorned as “welfare mothers” who are portrayed as lazy, good for nothing moochers, having children merely as a means of milking the system for revenue. On the other hand, married stay at home moms are held up as the pinnacle of ideal femininity. For some reason the maternal efforts of married women constitute honorable work while that same work performed by unmarried women (conceivably a much more demanding status) is condemned by conservatives as sloth. The married woman, under the perceived control and domination of an appropriate male is virtuous, while the independent woman, who clearly does not respect the conservative’s version of the natural order, is a pariah upon society.

The conservative right is also profoundly concerned with the rights of fetuses but have no interest in ensuring adequate food, clothing and shelter for those fetuses once they become people. As fetuses, the unborn are extensions of their fathers’ insemination, but as people, and outside of a “traditional” family, they become dependents of the despised welfare state.

The greatest feminine target of conservative contempt is the living Earth herself. While the Earth is obviously neither male nor female, our planet has been personified throughout human cultures and history as the Great Mother of all. Earth is the metaphoric epitome of everything feminine. Each of her myriad organisms is entirely dependent upon all others and the landbase within their ecosystem. Earth’s communities flourish in their collectivism. Furthermore, an ecological community in a pristine state is fecund, oozing fertility like a woman with an insatiable sexual appetite (limp penises beware).

What makes some people despise everything deemed to be feminine?

In a society that professes values of equality and justice for all, how can such a strong trend against the feminine have gained the upper hand? Social scientists in gender studies are particularly interested in this enigma and have discovered some telling clues regarding the origins of misogyny and its outward manifestations. Very young children, up to the age of three do not have a strong gender identity. That is, they do not identify themselves as permanently male or female. Many small children think gender is mutable and that one can change from girl to boy or vice versa at will. Furthermore, small children always identify with and see themselves as the same as the person or people who nurture them. In traditional patriarchal American society where mothers stay home and fathers go to work, small children almost invariably identify with their mothers.

To test the concept of maternal identification, researchers asked a group of small children (age 3) whether they wanted to be mommies or daddies when they grew up. Not surprisingly, the majority of girls wanted to be mommies, but interestingly, so did the majority of boys (1). In his book The Wimp Factor, author and psychologist Stephen Ducat explains the significance of this research. Children will identify with their primary, nurturing caretaker. In traditional patriarchal cultures, where care giving is performed almost exclusively by mothers, children will identify with the feminine. This phenomenon is reinforced by the patriarchal cultural bias against men performing nurturing tasks, which largely excludes men from the role of raising children.

As young boys mature in such environments, they have little concept of what it means to be a man, but as they enter the patriarchal world, they receive the message that feminine boys are abhorrent. The confused child has no apparent recourse but to reject his internal identity completely and to adapt outwardly to the values that society deems to be masculine; hence, the macho man is born.

Another study confirms the above hypothesis. A group of men were connected to polygraphs and asked questions about gender such as, “Would you rather be a woman?” and, “Do you think you are a real man?” While all men answered in the negative to cross-gendered identity questions, for some men these responses registered as falsehoods on the polygraph. The men who demonstrated the largest propensity to lie were also those who outwardly displayed stereotypical male dominance and were more likely to eschew values of gender equality (2). Anywhere one sees an extreme aversion to perceived feminine qualities, a little boy who identifies with his mommy, cloaked in the protective garment of the misogynist is almost assuredly lurking beneath the surface.

Sadly for the world, the cult of anxious men has gained dominance over the planet in the futile effort to protect fragile masculinity. Thinly veiled chants of “drill baby drill” are the impotent man’s attempt to wield the permanently erect phallus he so desperately lacks. As manly men neglect and abandon their children in order to retrieve a missing manhood, the vicious cycle perpetuates. And so the train of unbridled masculine destruction is running down the track to global cataclysm. We must collectively expose the little boys with their big sticks, forcing them to acknowledge the buried feminine values within us all that the Earth desperately needs now to survive.


(1) Study by Rabban Meyer, “Sex-Role Identificaion in Young Children in Two Diverse Groups,” Genetic Psychology Monographs 42(1950), 81-158. Cited in The Wimp Factor by Stephen Ducat, page 32.

(2) Study by Denis O’Donovan, “Health and Femiphobia,” Paper presented at the 95th meeting of the American Psychological Association, 1987. Cited in The Wimp Factor, p. 28.

Wednesday, December 1, 2010

Lessons from Skunk

I am stalked by skunks. Since relocating to the United States from the skunk-free Turks and Caicos Islands, the smelly little devils seem to land in my path at every turn. At my first North American resting stop, a small camper in the woods of Southern Appalachia that my family affectionately referred to as “the Mouse Motel,” I awoke in the early morning hours to a distinctive smell arising from the remains of the evening cookout. A couple of skunks were arguing over the charred remains of hotdogs.
Now I am settled at the farm and the skunks continue to permeate my atmosphere. 150 lb. wonder dog, Bruce, was a skunk magnet for a while, much to the collective familial olfactory chagrin. Thankfully, he wised up quickly, and no, tomato juice does not work very effectively in such situations. Then, just in time for Thanksgiving, Trevor the pet Bourbon red turkey fell into an altercation with a resident skunk. The residue of said confrontation continues to transcend the usual farm-fresh air of the barn still.

After depositing adult children post-holiday at their respective institutions of higher learning, I arrived home in the evening hours to find the culprit sauntering around my front yard under the old willow tree like he owned the place. It took me a while to recognize the imposter because he was cloaked in a mantle of almost pure white rather than the usual striped wardrobe. Bruce, perhaps recalling some unpleasant memory of months past, barked anxiously at the interloper from the safety of the front porch. Not wanting to repeat recent history, I locked Bruce in the house, determined to take matters into my own hands.

Armed with a flashlight, I boldly approached the skunk and respectfully requested his departure from the property, thinking he would run away at the mere sight of such an impressive Homo sapiens. No such luck. The skunk was not impressed and continued his happy search for whatever he was sniffing out under the tree, ignoring me completely. Not wanting to press the issue, I returned to the house defeated.

Later, I was relating my Mustelid tale of woe to a friend well-versed in the ways of energy medicine, and she suggested that skunk had a message for me. As a scientist, the left, rational part of my brain insists on data and scientific methodologies to confirm such wild speculations. But I am also a person who lives daily with nature, and I am aware of the vast spectrum of phenomena that exist outside the limited human capacities of perception and reason.

I could choose to see the skunk as a stinky vermin of mere flesh and bones, or I could envision him as a manifestation of spirit that exemplifies a universal truth about existence. One perception leaves the skunk at the door as a minor irritation. The other perspective may not be provable scientifically but opens up a whole universe of miraculous possibilities for relationship between myself and the skunk that shares my habitat.

The human ego-centric view of the world is prevalent in modern society in two forms. In the first version, a God in heaven, created in our own image gives humans default dominion over all the other creatures of the Earth. The manifestations of Earth exist for man’s use and pleasure. In a second, similar version, Earth and all her children are rationally described according to observations made with the 5 human physical senses and are defined within the narrow confines of a human skull. In the first instance, reality is reduced to the pages of a 2,500 year old book. In the second, Earth and all her creatures are limited to physical and biological functions, cells, atoms and quarks. Both perspectives represent an impoverished view of the world.

We can see the Earth and all her living wonders as a sum of physical parts. Or, we can see all life  and existence as a magic by which inanimate elements are illuminated with the miraculous, unknowable life force beyond our intellectual comprehension. We can exist within the realm of pure rationalization, or we can adventure into the richer landscapes of feelings and spirit. I chose to explore the latter possibility.

Just as universal human archetypes can be traced across the spectrum of human cultures and history, so we must assume the rest of living Earth’s creations also possess universal truth. Native American animal lore attributes “strong medicine” to the skunk. According to author and metaphysician, Ted Andrews (1) and several online resources, the skunk exemplifies the aspects of sensuality, respect and self-esteem. My white skunk also possesses the qualities of purity, sharing and truth by virtue of his unusual coloration.

Immediately obvious to the rational mind, the sensual aspects of the skunk are profound. The skunk certainly gets himself noticed with an appeal to the senses, and while some might be offended by the skunk’s overtures, the skunk can both attract and repel others at will. In a threatening situation, the skunk definitely takes care of himself and commands respect even from the most aggressive of foes. Removed from danger, the skunk is playful, curious and affectionate.

The skunk’s command of respect is self-evident as noted above. After a preliminary encounter, the skunk enjoys almost universal respect from all whom he encounters. Armed with the confidence that such respect brings, the skunk moves freely about his world fulfilling his role in nature and life; hence, when a crazy woman with a flashlight starts gesticulating at you in the middle of the night, you ignore her.

Like skunk, I have offended more than a few proverbial noses with my leftist, eco-feminist, blasphemous musings. I know this because my detractors regularly send me communications of hate on my blog. Before I received skunk's message, I was succumbing to the downward negative pressure of the haters. Perhaps my notes were a bit too “out there.” Maybe I should just go about my daily life farming, working, enjoying my family and cease and desist from spraying my unsolicited words upon the rest of the world.

Skunk arrived in time to teach me to hold my head (and tail) high. We all have a place of belonging where we can embrace our own beautiful reasons for existence. If any doubt remained, skunk brandished his brilliant coat of white to reinforce his message, purity, sharing, truth. I will share my truth as honestly as I can regardless of who it may offend.

Our animal, vegetable and mineral neighbors are collectively more than the sum of their flesh, material and bones. Each individual has a purpose and integral function in the collective whole of the world. If we are willing to let go of reducing existence to logic or dogma, the messages in nature can enrich our lives infinitely. It is not enough to rationalize the world. We must also feel it and live within it. For if we can experience nature fully, intellectually, spiritually and emotionally, we will not be able to subsequently destroy it with such thoughtless abandon.


1- For more information on animal lore see Animal Speak – The Spiritual and Magical powers of Creatures Great and Small by Ted Andrews.